Directions for reading the timeline
The Cold War was a war between the US and the USSR, but it involved many different countries all around the world. Read through the timeline below and respond to the questions on the document provided.
1945: July -- Potsdam Conference
1945: August 6 -- Nuclear bomb is dropped on Hiroshima
1945: August 9 -- Nuclear bomb is dropped on Nagasaki
1945: August 14 -- Japanese Surrender in WWII
1946: March -- Churchill delivers "Iron Curtain" Speech
1947: March -- Truman declares role in Greek Civil War establishing the "Truman Doctrine"
1947: June -- Marshall Plan is announced
1948: February -- Communist takeover in Czechoslovakia
1948: June 24 -- Berlin Blockade begins
1948: July -- NATO ratified
1949: May 12 -- Berlin Blockade ends
1949: September -- Communist takeover in China under Mao Zedong
1949: September -- USSR explodes an atomic bomb
1950: February -- Senator Joe McCarthy begins Communist “witch-hunt” in the US
1950: June -- Korean War begins
1953: June 19 -- The Rosenbergs, suspected spies, are executed
1953: July -- Korean War ends
1954: March -- KGB established
1954 -- CIA helps overthrow unfriendly regimes in Iran and Guatemala
1954: July -- Communist takeover of North Vietnam, dividing at the 17th parallel
1955: May -- Warsaw Pact formed
1959: January -- Communist takeover in Cuba under Fidel Castro
1960: November -- John F. Kennedy elected President
1961: April -- Bay of Pigs Invasion
1961: August 13 -- Berlin’s border is closed
1961: August 17 -- Construction of Berlin Wall begins
1962: -- U.S. involvement in Vietnam increased
1962: October -- Cuban Missile Crisis
1963: June -- Six Day War between Israel and its neighbors. US supports Israel leading to Middle Eastern countries creating an Oil Embargo with the US.
1963: July -- Nuclear Test Ban Treaty ratified
1963: November -- President Kennedy assassinated in Dallas, Texas
1964: August -- Gulf of Tonkin incident is used as an excuse to go to war with Vietnam
1965: April -- U.S. goes to Dominican Republic to fight Communism
1965: July -- Announcement of dispatching of 150,000 U.S. troops to Vietnam
1967: 75,000 Americans March on Washington to protest Vietnam War
1968: Over 200 student anti-war demonstrations held in US
1968: January -- US launches the Tet Offensive in Vietnam
1968: March -- US soldiers massacre Vietnamese civilians in My Lai Massacre
1968: August -- Soviet troops crush Czechoslovakian revolt
1969: July 20 -- Apollo 11 lands on the moon
1970: April -- President Nixon extends Vietnam War to Cambodia
1970: May -- Ohio National Guardsmen kill 4 student protesters at Kent State
1970: June -- Mississippi National Guardsmen kill 2 student protesters at Jackson State
1973: October -- Israel fights its neighbors again, giving up land for peace
1974: August -- President Nixon resigns due to illegal activity
1975: April 17 -- North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam spreading communism
1979: November -- The Shah of Iran is overthrown, Iranian Hostage Crisis
1985: -- Iran-Contra Affair (arms sold to Iran, profits used to support contras in Nicaragua)
1985: -- Mikhail Gorbachev ascends to power in Soviet Union
1986: -- Gorbachev ends economic aid to Soviet satellites
1986: October -- Reagan and Gorbachev resolve to remove all intermediate nuclear missiles from Europe
1986: November -- Iran-Contra Affair revealed to public
1987: October -- Reagan and Gorbachev agree to remove all medium and short-range nuclear missiles by signing treaty
1989: January -- Soviet troops withdraw from Afghanistan
1989: June -- China puts down protests for democracy; Poland becomes independent
1989: September -- Hungary becomes independent
1989: November -- Berlin Wall falls
1989: December -- Communist governments fall in Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Rumania; Soviet empire ends
1990: March -- Lithuania becomes independent from the USSR
1990: October 3 -- Germany is reunited
1991: April -- Warsaw Pact ends
1991: August -- Collapse of Soviet Union, Cold War Ends
1992: First Post-Cold War incident, the Persian Gulf War
1992: Yugoslavian civil war breaks out.
1993: World Trade Center attacked by extremists in NYC.
1995: President Bill Clinton settles the genocide by brokering the Dayton Agreement.
1998: October-- Iraq ends cooperation with UN Special Commission to Oversee the Destruction of Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction
1998: December-- US and British Operation Desert Fox bombing campaign aims to destroy Iraq's nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programs
2001 February-- Britain, US carry out bombing raids to try to disable Iraq's air defence network
2001: September-- 11 Terrorist attack on World Trade Center
2002: September-- US President George W Bush tells UN Iraq poses "grave and gathering danger," British Prime Minister Tony Blair publishes later-discredited dossier on Iraq's military capability.
2003: March-- US-led invasion topples Saddam Hussein's government, marks start of years of violent conflict with different groups competing for power.
2003: December-- Saddam Hussein captured in Tikrit.
2005: January-- Some 8 million vote in elections for a Transitional National Assembly
2008: US President Obama begins withdraw from Iraq and Afghanistan
2008: President Obama increases the US use of drone warfare
2011: May-- Obama leads a raid to kill Osama Bin Laden (responsible for 9/11)
Should we have gone to Iraq?
Who’s to Blame for the Cold War?
This inquiry leads students through an investigation of the causes of the Cold War by examining events through the perspective of both the Soviet Union and the United States. By investigating the compelling question “Who’s to blame for the Cold War?” students evaluate these events in consideration of the historiography, using the work of several preeminent Cold War historians, and the consequences of assigning blame to either country. The formative performance tasks build on knowledge and skills through the course of the inquiry and help students recognize different perspectives in order to better understand the ways in which mutual concerns and fears culminated in global tensions. Students create an evidence-based argument about whether anyone should be assigned blame in starting the Cold War after considering the tensions that emerged during and after World War II, perception of the actions taken by the United States and Soviet Union, assessing historiographical viewpoints, and considering how assigning blame affects perceptions of the actions of others.
What Made Nonviolent
Teaching the Vietnam War
This collection of videos and lesson plans can help students explore the social and political dynamics of the Vietnam War. Students will examine why, how, and by whom the Vietnam War was fought, how it affected U.S. citizens at home, and how factors shifted over the course of the war. Students will identify the Vietnam War’s legacy and lasting toll on veterans.
This collection includes resources related to The Vietnam War, a ten-part documentary series that aired on PBS September 17-21, 2017. The series represents the latest work from filmmakers Ken Burns and Lynn Novick and featured archival footage and testimony from nearly 100 witnesses, including American veterans who fought in the war and Americans who opposed it, as well as Vietnamese combatants and civilians.
How Should the President Foster Economic Opportunity?
The goal of this inquiry is help students understand the central debate about the government’s role in fostering economic opportunity over the past half century. As this is a historical inquiry, it focuses on the motivations, actions, and impacts of two particular US presidents: Lyndon Johnson and Ronald Reagan. Their economic programs stand in for the larger argument that persists today between liberal and conservative approaches to federal economic policy. Thus, the compelling question “How should the president foster economic opportunity?” is intentionally timeless to emphasize its relevance today. Students look at Johnson’s and Reagan’s visions for the economy, the policies they advanced to achieve their visions, and modern interpretations of each president’s legacy.
How do these historical documents fit into the history of the